Chaptalisation is the process whereby sugar is added in order to bring the eventual alcoholic content in the grapes was not high enough.
The must is then inoculated with pure culture of wine yeast and fermentation begins, English wine is remarkable for its freshness, aroma and delicacy of flavour.
In order to capture this, the fermentation (which gives off heat) must not be allowed to run too hot and so ‘boil off’ the flavours but must be maintained at an average temperature no higher than 16 degrees C.
This fermentation, at first very vigorous and then slowing down, will last for up to three weeks until all the sugar is converted to alcohol and carbon dioxide.
The new wine is ‘racked off’ it’s sediment into a clean tank and then left to mature. Night air will chill the winery and cold-stabilise the wine, bringing out any crystalline deposits.
The new style wineries in England now have controlled temperature rooms built into their buildings to manage red and white style wines.